Monday, May 25, 2020

What Do You Know About the History of MP3

In 1987, with a project named EUREKA project EU147, Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), the prestigious Fraunhofer Institut Integrierte Schaltungen research center (a division of the German Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft firm) began researching high-quality, low bit-rate audio coding. Fraunhofer-Gesellshaft now owns the licensing and the patent rights to the audio compression technology that was developed, a technology better known as MP3. Dieter Seitzer and Karlheinz Brandenburg The inventors named on the United States Patent 5,579,430 for a digital encoding process, a.k.a. MP3, are Bernhard Grill, Karlheinz Brandenburg, Thomas Sporer, Bernd Kurten, and Ernst Eberlein but the two names most frequently associated with the development of MP3 are Karlheinz Brandenburg and University of Erlangen professor Dieter Seitzer. A specialist in mathematics and electronics, Brandenburg—who is often called the father of MP3—led the Fraunhofer research. Brandenburg had been researching methods of compressing music since 1977. Seitzer, whod been working on the quality transfer of music over a standard phone line, joined the project as an audio coder. In an interview with Intel, Brandenburg described how MP3 took several years to develop—and almost didnt happen at all. In 1991, the project almost died, he recalled. During modification tests, the encoding simply did not want to work properly. Two days before submission of the first version of the MP3 codec, we found the compiler error. What is MP3? MP3 stands for MPEG Audio Layer III—a standard for audio compression that makes any music file smaller with little or no loss of sound quality. MP3 is part of MPEG, an acronym for Motion Pictures Expert Group, which is a family of standards for displaying video and audio using lossy compression (in which random partial data is irreversibly discarded, allowing the remainder to represent a compressed version of the original). Standards set by the Industry Standards Organization (ISO), were launched in 1992 with the MPEG-1. MPEG-1 is a video compression standard with low bandwidth. The high bandwidth audio and video compression standard of MPEG-2 followed and was of adequate quality for use with DVD technology. MPEG Layer III or MP3 involves audio compression only. Fast Facts: History of MP3 Timeline 1987: The Fraunhofer Institut in Germany began research code-named EUREKA project EU147, Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB).January 1988: Moving Picture Experts Group or MPEG was established as a subcommittee of the International Standards Organization/International Electrotechnical Commission or ISO/IEC.April 1989: Fraunhofer received a German patent for MP3.1992: Fraunhofers and Dieter Seitzer’s audio coding algorithm was integrated into MPEG-1.1993: MPEG-1 standard was published.1994: MPEG-2 was developed and published a year later.November 26, 1996: A United States patent for MP3 was issued.September 1998: Fraunhofer began enforcing their patent rights. All developers of MP3 encoders or rippers and decoders/players must now pay a licensing fee to Fraunhofer, however, no licensing fees are required to simply use an MP3 player.February 1999: A record company called SubPop was the first to distribute music tracks in the MP3 format.1999: Portable MP3 players make their debut. What Can MP3 Do? According to Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, Without data reduction, digital audio signals typically consist of 16-bit samples recorded at a sampling rate more than twice the actual audio bandwidth (e.g. 44.1 kHz for Compact Discs). So you end up with more than 1.400 Mbit to represent just one second of stereo music in CD quality. By using MPEG audio coding, you [can] shrink down the original sound data from a CD by a factor of 12, without losing sound quality. MP3 Players In the early 1990s, Frauenhofer developed the first MP3 player—but it was a bust. In 1997, developer Tomislav Uzelac of Advanced Multimedia Products invented the first successful MP3 player, the AMP MP3 Playback Engine. Soon after, two university students, Justin Frankel and Dmitry Boldyrev, ported AMP to Windows to create Winamp. In 1998, Winamp became a free MP3 music player, which took the success of MP3 to a whole new level.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Basketball and My Life Essay - 984 Words

Basketball and my life I have throughout my whole life been playing sports. I still play basketball competitively and now it’s at the university level. Basketball though was not my first love when it came to playing sports. It has though become my true focus since junior high school. Coming from Canada everybody plays hockey. Its almost as if as soon as you learn to walk you learn how to skate. Whether it is at the recreation centre or at the shinny rink around the corner everyone plays. Eventually I abandoned hockey to play basketball which I have done so for the last twelve years of my life and hopefully a few more years into the future. It happened watching it on television seeing all the great players such as Michael†¦show more content†¦I was the starting centre for the Alberta 15 and under provincial team. Once this happened I started to receive better coaching to help hone my skills. The most important thing that happened was my passion for the game flourished. By my junior year I had became a first team all star at nationals for basketball and helped lead my team to second in the country. At this time it began to look like that I would just have a good high school career but also a chance to try and prove myself in university. My senior year proved to be my toughest year as I tried to decide where I wanted to continue with my dream of playing the sport I love. All of a sudden I had schools from western Canada all to the way to the Atlantic trying to get me to play at their school. During this year I received my greatest achievement yet when I was named a starter for the first ever adidas all Canadian all-star game. When I was younger I realized that the NBA was almost too high a bar to reach I decided that the NCAA would be a great achievement. Eventually that opportunity presented itself to me in the form of two schools. NAU and Montana St. expressed interest and I struggled to decide where I wanted to spend the next four or possibly five years of my life. All of the people that I had met while visiting each school were just so nice. I didn’t want to disappoint any of them. When I got a chance to play here at NAU on full scholarship I decided that this was the perfectShow MoreRelatedWhy Basketball Is A Big Part Of My Life1467 Words   |  6 Pagesin Mo’Ne. I should ask my mom if I have a long lost sister. It’s just a notion. Well, for as long as I could remember I’ve been playing basketball. Seems cliche but it’s the literal truth. My love for the sport is unexplainable however I’ll try a synopsis. Improving physically and mentally as I play, building camaraderie with my teammates, and being able to separate myself from my life problems when I’m on the court, are all reasons to why basketball is a big part of my life. As with everything elseRead MoreWhy I Am A Wheelchair Basketball860 Words   |  4 Pagesbut even with my differences I knew that I wanted to play basketball. It was my dream and when I started middle school I was determined to join the team at my school. When I went to the coach of the team and asked him if I could try-out he said no because â€Å"I was more of a liability rather than an athlete†. This was th e first time that my disability actually got in the way of my actions. I went into a depression and then I found wheelchair basketball. Joining a wheelchair basketball team has changedRead MoreIs Cambridge Mass The City Of Chance, Opportunity, Diversity, And Most Important Basketball?855 Words   |  4 Pageschance, opportunity, diversity and most importantly basketball. Growing up as child in Cambridge all you hear is stories about basketball and the great tradition, reputation we have built to become the model of a winning basketball, program over decades that seamlessly trout out great teams contending for the right to be named state champions every year. This tradition is passed on to each generation of kids in Cambridge very young because most likely my father your father once wore the falcon jerseyRead More Playing Basketball Essay695 Words   |  3 PagesPlaying Basketball Being part of the basketball clique in high school helped me learn the intrapersonal and social communication skills I use today. As a child playing basketball was my favorite activity or hobby. Its also the way I met a lot of my good friends that I have now. All my close friends I have met. I have met them through playing basketball.. Whether they were on my team, the opposing team or just fans in the crowd who admired my play. Not only has basketball helped me gain friendsRead MoreHow I Spent Active And Be Outdoors1308 Words   |  6 Pagespark almost every day and play with my friends. I enjoyed playing all types of sports, especially basketball and soccer, and still do today. I joined several sports leagues throughout my life as well. I played 3 years of soccer, and 5 years of basketball. Even though it was only club sports, I still played every game like it was my last, and always pushed myself to improve my abilities. Sadly, many of the physical activities I participated in t hroughout my life came to an end, when I injured myselfRead MoreBasketball Skills Essay921 Words   |  4 PagesAndrew Lorentz Prof Berkhof PE 141 Basketball Skills 10/14/09 Basketball Skills Reflective Assessment Essay Basketball Skills was a great physical education class because I got to improve my overall basketball skills and learn some exact specifics about the sport I love to play the most. I’ve been playing basketball since I was very young and will continue to throughout my life. I have quite a few strengths while playing basketball. One is that I am a skilled ball handlerRead MoreThe Greatest Obstacle Of My Life900 Words   |  4 Pagesdescribing the greatest obstacle in my life I need to first convey my definition of obstacle. As I view the word obstacle, it is an impediment or difficult circumstance that causes you to negotiate your way, it is not a barrier that cannot be overcome. The bible teaches us in John 16:33 that â€Å"in this world you will have trouble†. Throughout my life there have been obstacles that created defining moments for me. So therefore my greatest obstacle has been a series of life events that have brought me toRead MoreI Didn t Start Playing A Kid874 Words   |  4 Pageshowever I think basketball is the most developing community I’ve ever belonged to. Just like any sport, many individuals learn how to play as a kid. Most participate recreationally, while others participate competitively with their peers. I didn’t start playing competitive until I was in middle school. The coach enabled me to become a part of this discourse community. Once I made the team I was a valued member of that community. There were many individuals that influenced me to join. My dad noticed howRead MoreWhy I Love Basketball945 Words   |  4 PagesIn my free time, I enjoy a plethora of activities but I have come to the conclusion that basketball is my all-time favorite pastime. Watching the sport on television is just as enjoyable as playing it. Strangely, basketball has always seemed to permeate my life in one way or another. Sometimes, I feel like I was born to dream, live, and even sleep thinking about basketball. Basketball is such an amazing sport and I cannot fathom living in a world in which the sport did not existRead MoreDreams And Aspirations As A Child Essay874 Words   |  4 Pageswhen maturing, life can take dramatic turns. At the age of six, I knew exactly what I wanted to do when I grew up. I was going to be a professional basketball player. As life continued, I realized that it was beginning to be a distant dream. The distant dream was disappointing, but added to my character. Although I was unsuccessful at reaching my goal of being a professional basketball player, I learned new things that changed my life for the better. My parents handed me a basketball when I was five

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Computers in Society - 1554 Words

Computers in Society Today computers are a part of everyday life, they are in their simplest form a digital watch or more complexly computers manage power grids, telephone networks, and the money of the world. Computers are a relatively new invention. The first computers were built fifty years ago and it is only in the last thirty or so years that their influence has affected our everyday life. Personal computers were introduced as recently as the early eighties. In this short time they have made a tremendous impact on our lives. We are now so dependent on computers that it is hard to imagine what things would be like today without them. You have only got to go into a bank when their main computer is broken to appreciate the†¦show more content†¦With permanent development of computer technology the quantity of people using computer either for working purposes or entertainment purposes is increasing speedily. One of the reasons of acquiring computers and computer games by busy parents for their children is providing playing leisure for them. But some parents don’t realize that computer games not only develop child’s mind, logic (what is positive influence) but has negative affects. Computer games industry is evaluated in two ways. On the one hand it is associated with admiration of computers abilities, on the other hand with dangerous influence on teenagers’ psychology and health. Radiation even of the safest and modern monitors are serious leading on eyes and bearing of unformed organisms. There are many examples of heath problems caused by computers. Talking about psychology it is depend on genre of computer games. Unfortunately the market of computer games consists of games that include killing, attack, aggressive actions, and cruel behavior. These factors lead to change in human psychology and mind. Gamers became more wicked, more aggressive to each other and to other people. They are more inclined to aggression, violence and... Children are becoming more and more influenced by outside information as technology progresses. What used to be the main concern, with the availability of information through technology, Pornography is no longer in the spotlight. MoreShow MoreRelatedComputers and Society925 Words   |  4 PagesThe early computer development began in the late 60’s, at that time their common use was for complex mathematical calculations, and were mostly used by government corporations. As time went on computers became widely popular, and they were being used at a personal level. The Apple Lisa Computer was the first successful personal computer with a GUI interface which was introduced in 1983. Nowadays computers have become extremely popular, and they are being used almost everywhere. We are becoming overwhelminglyRead MoreImpact of Computer in Society1543 Words   |  7 PagesThe Impact Of Computers On Society Today Computers have made such an enormous impact on our society today. There isn t a place where you can turn where there isn t a computer involved. In the present time, most businesses rely on computers and it s similar technology. This field of technology has been so advanced within the past few years that it has been the primary tool in successful businesses. Not only does it make daily annoying tasks easy with a click of a button, it also makes travelingRead Moreeffects of computers in the society2116 Words   |  9 PagesThe effects of computers on the world Abstract In our societies today, no one could really predict the actual effects of computers, but the changes that have taken place on the people’s daily lives are actually evident. The manner in which people over depend on the computers technology has rapidly increased and has brought several changes on the economic sector, political sector, and the education sector. The computers could possibly isolate from each other. They could also alter the face-to-faceRead MoreComputers And The Modern Society1524 Words   |  7 PagesBernardino, California on December 2, 2015. The shooting did not only take the life of 14 innocent people but also leave behind a controversial issue of whether or not Apple should help FBI to decrypt the killers’ iPhones for investigation. In the modern society, the powerful encryption software prevents the governmental agencies from decoding in a reasonable amount of time to ensure that the users’ privacy is not being violated by those in power. C onsidering users’ right to privacy, Apple decided to standRead MoreComputers And Its Effects On Society995 Words   |  4 PagesPersonal computers have advanced tremendously in the last sixty years; as a result, they have taken over many things that people do in their daily lives. They have given people many useful applications such as email, video chat, social media, games, and the Internet. Computers have transformed people s way of life allowing them to do things faster and easier, causing life to feel more simple. Computers have been an enormous advancement into the world s future but it is not completely beneficialRead MoreComputer, Technology, and Society Essay1191 Words   |  5 Pagesthink about how pervasive computers have become in our lives. In just a few short decades they appear to be everywhere: from our desktops, to our cars, to our coffeemakers and our phones. In the nineteen years from 1984 to 2003 the percentage of US households that have a computer in t he home rose from 8.2% to 61.8%. From 1997 to 2009 the number of US households with Internet access at home climbed from 18% to 68.7%. As you can see the number of US households with a computer and Internet access inRead MoreComputer Technology And Its Impact On Society Essay1168 Words   |  5 PagesComputer technology has evolved dramatically over the years and has significantly changed society. As technology advances, it transforms and improves society. Computer-related technology allows for enhancement of social functions previously difficult or impossible to execute. Computers have also accelerated productivity. Much less time is required nowadays to research information. Many in search of jobs and careers have reaped the rewards of computer technology. For too long, finding informationRead MoreComputer Technology and the Effects on Society1564 Words   |  7 PagesComputer Technology and the Effects on S Computer Technology and the Effect on Society Computer technology has had a great effect on society as a whole throughout history. It has modified our behavior greatly as we have become accustomed to the technological advancements of yesterday. We are so dependent sometimes we do not even have a concept of what life would be like without computers. When we are forced to live life without computers we are left hopeless and disillusioned and simple everydayRead MoreComputer Crime And Its Effect On Society932 Words   |  4 PagesComputer crime has been an issue since the 1970s. Computer crimes have been categorized in two ways. First is a physical activity in which criminals steal computers. Second is that in which criminals commit crimes using computers. The recent development of the Internet has created a substantial increase in criminals commit crimes using computers. Thus, an emerging area of criminal behavior is cyber crime. Computer crimes mostly affect to a lot of areas of the society. When we work with computersRead MoreThe Effects Of Computer Games On Society3332 Words   |  14 Pageswhether violence in computer games has a direct link to violence in the society. It starts by looking into the definition of a violence and the type of violence that are common in our society today. The essay looks into the prevalence of and exposure to computer games in the modern society. It went further to investigate the impacts of computer games as an entertaining and recreational medium. In order to do justice to the aforementioned controversy between violence in computer games and violence

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Financial Analysis of Singapore Telecommunications Limited

Question: Discuss about the Financial Analysis of Singapore Telecommunications Limited. Answer: Introduction The investors require information that helps them take investment decisions (Tracy, 2012). The information needs of the investors could be met out by analyzing the financial statements of the company. In order to gain insight into the financial performance and position of the telecommunication sector in Singapore, two big giants of the sector namely Singapore Telecommunication Limited and Starhub have been chosen for analysis. Singapore Telecommunication Limited The company provides integrated infocomms technology solutions primarily in the countries such as Singapore, Australia, the United State, and the Europe (Singtel, 2016). It is one of the biggest companies on the Stock Exchange of Singapore thus; it would provide a glimpse of entire industry in terms of financial performance. StarHub Ltd This company was founded in the year 1998 and since it has grown significantly. The company provides communication and entertainment services in Singapore and it is one of the biggest revivals of Singapore Telecommunication Limited (StarHub, 2016). This company has been chosen to compare the financial performance of Singapore Telecommunication Ltd. It has been observed from the chart shown above that the profitability of Singapore Telecommunication Limited is showing upward in the financial year 2015. On the other hand, the profitability of its competitor namely Starhub is going downward. The net margin of Singapore Telecommunication Limited has gone up from 19.29% in the year 2013 to 21.96% in the year 2015 (Appendix). Further, the operating profit margin and return on equity are also showing slight improvements in the current financial year (Tracy, 2012). Further, analysis reveals that the company has higher net margin (21.96%) than its competitor (15.22%), but the position in regard to return on equity is different. The competitor has very high return on equity (198.93%), which appears to be due to low equity maintained by it (Appendix). Starhub has very low equity, which is depicted from high debt equity ratio of 9 times. Liquidity Analysis The current ratio of Singapore Telecommunication Limited has been found to be 0.83, 0.86, and 0.83 times for the financial years 2013, 2014, and 2015 respectively (Appendix). Further, in respect of its competitor it has been observed to be 0.71, 0.56, 0.59 times for financial years 2013, 2014, and 2015 respectively. Thus, it can be observed that the company has been able to maintain the current ratio at same level, but the competitors liquidity position is going downward. Further, comparing the liquidity position of the company with its competitor, it could be observed that company is in better position. Efficiency Analysis Singapore Telecommunication Limited provides 82 days credit period, while, it competitor is extending only 47 days credit to the customers. Further, the asset turnover ratio of the company is also lower than that of its competitor. This indicates that the management of the company has not been able to deploy its assets efficiently. Further, the trend in the recent years depicts that the accounts receivable days are increasing and the asset turnover ratio is decreasing continuously, which is indicative of deterioration in the efficiency of the operations (Tracy, 2012). Solvency Analysis The debt equity ratio of the company is 0.70 times while that of its competitor is 9.21 times, which indicates that the solvency position of the company is far better. Further, the company also maintains sufficient operating profits to pay off the debt obligations on time, which is depicted in the Interest Times ratio of 9.60 times. Conclusion From the ratio analysis conducted in this report, it could be articulated that the profitability, liquidity, and solvency of Singapore Telecommunication Limited is better than Starhub Limited. However, the managements efficiency as regard deployment of the assets of the company has been found to be lower than its competitor. Overall, Singapore Telecommunication Limited is in better position than Starhub Limited. Reference Singtel. 2016. Company profile. [Online]. Available at: https://www.singtel.com/about-Us/company-profile.html [Accessed on: 13 November 2016]. Starhub. 2016. Company profile. [Online]. Available at: https://www.starhub.com/about-us/company-information/profile.html [Accessed on: 13 November 2016]. Tracy, A. 2012.Ratio Analysis Fundamentals: How 17 Financial Ratios Can Allow You to Analyse Any Business on the Planet. RatioAnalysis.net.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Ad And Ego Essays - Jean Kilbourne, Freudian Psychology, Sut Jhally

Ad And Ego The Ad and the Ego Students will never look at an ad the same way again after screening The Ad and the Ego, the first comprehensive examination of advertising and our culture of consumption. The film artfully intercuts clips from hundreds of familiar television ads with insights from Stuart Ewen, Jean Kilbourne, Richard Pollay, Sut Jhally, Bernard McGrane and other noted critics, performing a cultural psychoanalysis of late 20th century America and its principal inhabitants, Consumer Man and Woman. The Ad and the Ego depicts how the market economy has metastasized until today commercialism invades the most intimate aspects of our lives. The average American is exposed to 1500 ads a day. But, like the air we breathe, we pay advertising little attention preferring to believe we're impervious to it. Scholars point out that advertising's constant stream of messages forms the neural network of a consumer society integrating individual psychology, mass culture and commodity production. As the film progresses, we begin to perceive how ads for Nike, Calvin Klein, Oil of Olay, and Suzuki are selling more than products. As Jean Kilbourne argues, they sell us values, concepts of love and sexuality, romance and success, a sense of identity, above all, what is normal. Leading media critics demonstrate how living in an advertisement infused environment creates a psychology of need, massaging our anxieties, doubts, and discontents, creating a boundless hunger for more things. One message you'll never hear in an ad, sociologist Bernard McGrane observes, is You're OK. The Ad and the Ego traces advertising's development from its largely descriptive 19th century origins through today's ads which eschew rational arguments for symbols and imagery playing directly to our emotions. Sut Jhally describes ads as the dream life of our culture and explains the persuasive techniques they use to invest commodities with powerful properties magically able to transform the mundane lives of their purchasers. The Ad and the Ego goes on to demonstrate the link between our debased public discourse and a culture which defines freedom as consumer choice rather than civic deliberation. It analyzes the selling of political beliefs to demonstrate how citizenship has increasingly been replaced by spectatorship, civil society by consumer culture. The Ad and the Ego makes the critical connections between the rise of consumerism, environmental degradation and our blind commitment to economic growth at any cost. This pathbreaking new film will help students of communications, sociology, psychology, marketing and business ethics better understand the central role of advertising in our society and our psyches. Sociology Essays

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Aircraft crash and emergency management Essay Example

Aircraft crash and emergency management Essay Example Aircraft crash and emergency management Essay Aircraft crash and emergency management Essay Abstraction This is an over position of United Airlines Flight 232. This is about a DC-10 that was holding mechanical troubles and landed at the nearest airdrome possible. The airdrome it landed at was a Category 6 airdrome. This airdrome was excessively little for this type of aircraft. The aircraft so landed at full accelerator. Flight 232 United Airlines Flight 232 was en-route from Denver to Chicago on the 19 July 1989. During the flight there was a loud noise that was coming from the tail mounted engine. At the clip of the incident the crew heard the noise but did non cognize that the engine fan assembly had came apart with adequate force and severed through the right horizontal stabilizer. In this same country was a 10 inch broad path that all three hydraulic systems shared. When the engine cut through this it caused the aircraft to lose all three hydraulic systems that power all the flight controls on the aircraft. The crew still had control of the other two engines but no flight control power. This would hold command the flight surfaces i.e. flaps, perpendicular and horizontal stabilizers. So with this being realized the crew so started utilizing the accelerators to command the aircraft. They powered one engine to full power and throttled the other back. This helped keep the necessary header but increased velocit y greatly for all landing intents. Next the crew found the closest airdrome that they could set down the plane at. The crew found Sioux City Gateway Airport, besides known as Colonel Bud Day Field, is located 6 stat mis south of Sioux City and west of Sergeant Bluff, in Woodbury County, Iowa. This airdrome is considered a Category 6 airdrome. Sioux Gateway Airport covers a monolithic country of 2,460 estates this contains two tracks: 13/31 with a concrete surface mensurating 9,002 ten 150 foot and 17/35 with an asphalt surface mensurating 6,600 ten 150 foot ( US DOT A ; FAA, 2010 ) . I could non happen any information from day of the month of the accident but for the 12-month period stoping April 30, 2006, the airdrome had 30,726 aircraft operations, an norm of 84 per twenty-four hours: 65 % general air power, 19 % military and 16 % scheduled commercial. There are 67 aircraft based at this airdrome: 66 % individual engine, 19 % jet aircraft, 13 % military and 1 % choppers. This peculiar landing field is a double usage airdrome. Meaning that both civilian and Air National Guard usage this airdrome. The ARFF services provided for the airdrome are provided by the Air National Guard ( US DOT A ; FAA, 2010 ) . The National Fire Protection Association ( NFPA ) classifies this as a class six for their current ARFF capablenesss. After making some probe, and traveling under the ( NFPA 403 ) there are really two different class 6s. There is a 6a and a 6b, the intent for the two different class 6s is for snuff outing agent capablenesss. The one large difference that I can state between the two is that the 6b demands to be able to manage a dual decked aircraft. The installation, which is certificated under Federal Aviation Administration ( FAA ) ordinances 14 CFR 139, as an Index B airdrome ( Boucher, 2003 ) . The index is based on the largest aeroplane with an norm of five or more scheduled day-to-day goings ; the ordinances stipulate the minimal degree of firefighting equipment and agents for each index. For SUX, Index B was based on an aeroplane equivalent to the Boeing 737-200 series and requires a minimal 1,500 gallons of H2O for froth production. An airdrome functioning McDonnell Douglas DC -10 series aeroplanes and would necessitate more than double the measure of fire snuff outing agents required for an Index B airdrome ( Boucher, 2003 ) . With that being said and a nice feeling for the land work of the landing field. I was able to happen a picture of the plane coming in for its landing. I was really surprised to happen one and besides really lucky here is a nexus and I would advice to watch the undermentioned nexus: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dailymotion.com/video/x5yztk_1989-sioux-city-crash_news. The aircraft landing was originally planned for the 9,000 pes Runway 31. There were several troubles in commanding the aircraft. This made run alonging up the aircraft in its current status about impossible. While dumping all most of the extra fuel if non all, the plane executed a series of largely right-hand bends ( it was easier to turn the plane in this way ) the purpose was being able to be easy line up with runway 31. When the air crew came out of there right manus bends, they were left with an attack on the shorter Runway 22, this was merely a 6,600 pess over half a mile shorter, with small or no capacity to s teer. Fire trucks had already been placed on track 22, the clang trucks were expecting a landing on track 31, this caused a monolithic scuffle as the trucks rushed out of track 31 over to runway 22 ( Conroy, 2005 ) . The pilot did his best to go on and seek and command the aircraft s loss of height by seting engine push. With the loss of all fluid mechanicss, the pilot was unable to command any sort of airspeed, that being said the sink rate was really high. When it came in for concluding descent, the aircraft was approaching 240 knots and droping at 1850 pess per minute, while a safe landing would necessitate 140 knots and 300 pess per minute ( NTSB 1990 ) . The aircraft began to drop faster while on concluding attack and began swerving to the right. The really tip of the right wing was the first thing to hit the track ; this began sloping fuel and ignited instantly. The tail subdivision so broke off from the blunt force of the impact and sent the remainder of flight 232 bounce several times. This shredded the landing cogwheel and engines, eventually interrupting the fuselage into several chief pieces. On the concluding impact the right wing was sheared away and the chief portion of the aircraft skidded sideways, turn overing into its concluding place over on to its dorsum, and slid to a halt upside down in a maize field to the right side of track 22 ( NTSB 1990 ) . The picture of the clang showed the fire right flying toppling end-over-end, but if you watched the picture it is really hard to do this out. Major dust from Engine # 2 and other parts from the tail constructions of the plane, were subsequently found on farming area near Alta, Iowa. The beastly force of this clang caused pieces of the aircraft to set down about 60 stat mis north-east of Sioux City ( NTSB 1990 ) . This is where things get a small intense. The ARFF s ability to continuously remain on top of the station clang fire near the aircrafts right flying root would be a major factor. The probe besides identified several lacks in the current design and operation of the Kovatch A/S32P-18 ( P-18 ) H2O supply vehicle, the absence of FAA demands to regularly trial fire service vehicles at their maximal discharge capacity, every bit good as holds in rectifying reported lacks in Kovatch P-18 fire service vehicles ( Kolstad 1990 ) . There were two ARFF vehicles that were foremost to get at the scene of the accident. They began a mass application of snuff outing froth instantly. The underside of the fuselage, besides known as the bell of the plane was blanketed with froth. The froth cover temporarily suppressed the fire during the emptying of riders and crew ( Remember the plane is belly up ) . Harmonizing to NTSB pproximately nine proceedingss after the set downing both ARFF vehicles had ran out of H2O, a P-18 H2O supply vehicle was positioned next to the two ARFF vehicles, and a 2 1/2-inch hosiery was connected between the P-18 and each vehicle. When the P-18 H2O pump was charged to its maximal capacity of 500 gallons per minute, a limitation developed in the vehicle s tank-to-pump hosiery that stopped all H2O flow to the two ARFF vehicles ( NTSB, 1990 ) . Therefore, the airdrome s primary onslaught vehicles could non be replenished with H2O to go on assailing the fire. Two Sioux City Fire Department pumper tru cks later resupplied the airdrome s ARFF vehicles. On a side note we had discussed this really thing about holding the local fire section holding the ability to refill an airdrome in instance of an accident and this is a perfect illustration of a local section that most probably saved the twenty-four hours. The chief thing that I could non happen was if the local fire section of all time trained with the airdrome crew. However, during this hold of about 8 proceedingss, no snuff outing agent was applied to the fuselage, and the fire at the aeroplane s right wing root ( the original foaming topographic point ) intensified. Soon thenceforth, fire penetrated the cabin, ensuing in privy fires that could non be attacked by exterior fire contending tactics. This was due to the deficiency of entree to the fire being on the interior of the aircraft. Despite efforts to progress manus lines to the inside of the aeroplane, the fire intensified inside the cabin and burned out of control for appr oximately 2 1/2 hours ( Kolstad 1990 ) . The Kovatch P-18 H2O supply vehicle has no foam-producing capableness, therefore why it s a H2O supply vehicle. As Kolsatd said it is designed chiefly to provide H2O to the primary ARFF vehicles. It is certified by the maker of a H2O capacity of 2,000 gallons and a maximal H2O pump discharge rate of 500 gallons per minute ( Kolsad 1990 ) . In September 1988, the Iowa Air National Guard purchased the P-18 through the Air Force and placed it in service at SUX. It was learned that during the 2 old ages after this accident occurred that the Air Force had purchased 210 Kovatch P-18 H2O supply vehicles. The research workers besides learned that some P-18 s are based at joint-use airdromes that are certified by the FAA as holding ARFF capablenesss in conformity with 14 CFR 139. This was evidently incorrect they merely had H2O refilling capablenesss. The H2O supply vehicle was listed in the SUX airdrome enfranchisement manual, the airdrome fire head testified at the Safety Board s hearing th at the vehicle had neer been tested to its maximal discharge capacity of 500 gpm ( NTSB 1990 ) . At this point I tried really diligently to happen what are the requirements for their vehicle proving frequence ( for that specific vehicle from the maker ) . The lone thing that I could happen is that they fell under the FAA s ordinances. I truly wanted to cognize if that vehicle needed to be tested at full discharge daily, hebdomadal, monthly etc. The job here was that the fire head relied on the maker s pre-delivery mill trials of the pump s ability to dispatch 500 gpm with two 2 1/2-inch lines attached. But no testing of their ain was of all time done to verify this. Besides the fire head stated that, SUX tested the P-18 weekly at nominal force per unit area, this was less than 500 gpm. During the National Transportation Safety Board s probe, the P-18 s tank-to-pump suction hosiery assembly, a soft, 11-inch by 4 1/2-inch indoors diameter Gates rubber hosiery, was removed from the vehicle and examined at the SUX installations. The full scrutiny showed that the 2-inch internal polyvin 1 Kovatch ( maker ) stated that the internal stiffener in the soft hosiery assembly is required to forestall the hosiery from fall ining ( NTSB 1990 ) . Kovatch besides stated that the stiffener was installed by a imperativeness tantrum in the centre of the hose alternatively of being welded or made out of a different stuff. This lead to the scru tiny of the revolved stiffener, this strongly suggests that when the P-18 operator attempted to resupply the both ARFF vehicles by utilizing the two 2 1/2 inch hosieries, with the pump set to its upper limit operating capacity, there was a fleeting high force per unit area rush had occurred within the tank-to-pump piping system that caused the stiffener to travel and revolve to a place that blocked the flow of H2O to the pump ( NTSB 1990 ) . While looking at the susceptibleness of the internal stiffener to displace and rotate, the Safety Board found that the stiffener s length was about half the internal diameter of the soft suction hosiery and in head this would make a obstruction on its ain being half the diameter if non merely decelerate the volume of the H2O to the truck down. The shorter length of the stiffener caused it non to be clamped, this allowed it free to revolve and barricade the flow of H2O and it cause it to skid toward the pump consumption. This by its ego could do obstruction or failure in the system. This caused the Safety Board to be concerned that the design of the P-18, which uses a soft suction hosiery at a much critical location up watercourse of the vehicles pumps and this makes it extremely susceptible to blockage ( NTSB 1990 ) . Not merely in the P-18 is this construct used but in other pumpers manufactured by Kovatch. There needs to be a hose made of more stiff stuff, this would hold null in voided the demand for an internal stiffener or an improved design. It is necessary to cut down the opportunities of hose obstruction regardless of operating conditions. Kolstad stated on February 15, 1989, a P-18 operated by the Air Force at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, was unable to provide H2O to an ARFF vehicle during a pumping operation. It was determined that the A/S32P-18 armored combat vehicle suction line was restricted by a PVC stiffener inside the gum elastic suction line, and they installed a clinch around the hosiery and PVC to keep it in topographic point ( Kolstad, 1990 ) . On August 16, 1989, a similar P-18 lack was found at Malstrom Air force Base, Montana. Discussions with the Air Force, Kovatch issued Technical Service Bulletin 86-KFT5-P-18-5, dated August 21, 1989. This called for the remotion o f the armored combat vehicle to pump hosiery assembly installed on all 210 A/S32P-18 vehicles and this caused for the replacing of the hosiery assembly with a new armored combat vehicle to pump hosiery assembly. This one had a 4 inch PVC internal stiffener, much stronger than the original. This caused Kovatch agreed to carry on all the providing alteration kits straight to all air bases whose references were provided by Warner Robins Air Logistics Center ( Kolstad 1990 ) . August 22, 1989, the Air Force issued a Materials Deficiency Report this caused a erstwhile trial of all Kovatch P-18 vehicles. This would demo if the stiffener installed in the hosiery had rotated laterally 90 grades or non. The maximal pump discharge rate of 500 gpm, along with the replacing of the faulty 2-inch stiffener with the greater 4-inch stiffener. This allowed 30 yearss, eight Air Force bases had rapidly responded that trials found similar lacks to those described ( NTSB, 1990 ) . Now back to the clang. From the deficiency of proper processs being followed and running out of agent. Of the 296 people on board, 111 died in the clang. The bulk were killed by hurts sustained in the multiple impacts ( as you could see by the picture ) , several in the in-between fuselage subdivision straight above the fuel armored combat vehicles died from fume inspiration in the post-crash fire. I was really surprised that anybody surprised from this clang, from the picture I thought everybody was done. This portion of the fire burned for longer than it might hold but due to the monolithic holds in the firefighting attempts. Most of the 185 subsisters that were seated right behind first category and in front of the wings. There were many riders that were able to walk out through the ruptures through the construction. Several instances of persons got lost in the high field of maize adjacent to the track until rescue workers arrived on the scene and escorted them to safety ( NTSB 19 90 ) . Of the riders of flight 232: 35 died due to smoke inspiration ( None was in first category ) , 75 died for grounds other than smoke inspiration ( 17 were in first category ) , 41 were earnestly injured ( 8 were in first category ) , 121 had minor hurts ( 1 was in first category ) , 13 had no hurts ( None were in first category ) ( Conroy, 2005 ) . The riders who died for grounds other than smoke inspiration were seated in rows 1-4, 24-25, and 28-38. Passengers who died due to smoke inspiration were seated in rows 14, 16, and 22-30. A individual assigned to 20H moved to an unknown place and died due to smoke inspiration. One individual died 31 yearss after the accident ; the NTSB classified his hurts as serious. Fifty-two kids, including four lap kids, were on board the flight due to the United Airlines Children s Day publicity. This was really dry and really sad at the same clip to hear. Eleven kids, including one lap kid, died. Many of the kids had traveled entirely ( Conroy, 2005 ) . In decision I am grateful figure one for being able to happen the picture of this specific accident. With the picture I was able to to the full understand and see the incident. It merely was nt another narrative out of a book. The interviews with the subsisters showed how existent this state of affairs was and what was traveling through their head during this important clip. Mentions Boucher B. ( 2003 ) Report of the Committee on Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nfpa.org/assets/files/PDF/ROP/403-A2003-rop.PDF Conroy, M. T. ( 2005 ) Aircraft Accidents that Caused Major Changes to Emergency Response Equipment and Procedures. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nfpa.org/assets/files/PDF/Member % 20Sections/ConroyPaper.pdf Kolstad, J. L. , ( 1990 ) . NTSB Safety Recommendation. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ntsb.gov/Recs/letters/1990/A90_147_150.pdf NTSB ( 1990 ) Aircraft Accident Report of Flight 232. hypertext transfer protocol: //libraryonline.erau.edu/online-full-text/ntsb/aircraft-accident-reports/AAR90-06.pdf United States Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration ( 2010 ) Airport Master Record, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gcr1.com/5010web/REPORTS/SUX.pdf

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Evaluation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Evaluation - Essay Example Being an artist also takes the skill to evaluate one’s self in relationship to the creative moment, to be able to channel that something from deep inside into the piece so that the work is something more than just ‘pretty’. In deciding to be an artist, the pathway towards artistic achievement is far beyond the imaginings of the experience, even for the artist. Technique evolves through the experience of working with a medium. One learns through the educational venue, through working with materials, and through exploring with the raw substances that will go into creating the piece of work. One of the surprises in working with the materials that I have chosen for my body of work is that it takes so much longer to assemble a work than I had ever imagined. Despite that fact that it took someone like Seurat two years to paint Grande Jatte, I was surprised at how long different types of detailed work took to complete (Elkins74). One of the mediums that I used was to ass emble work using a colour palette developed from magazine clippings and weaving. The piece that I created, a scene of one boy carrying another on his back, took me a long length of time because of the limits on the colour palette and because of the intricacy of the work. While I expected that the intricacy of the work would take a great deal of time, it was unexpected that it would take so long to sort through the colour availability in order to successfully construct the image. In order to work on the piece, I had to construct a frame of mind in which deep concentration and meticulous, detailed work could be achieved from the placement of the magazine shreds. As well, it took a great deal of time to work adapt two paintings into one piece of work. The intention is to awaken the spirit of the integration of the Caribbean and British cultures through putting together imagery of The London Bridge in England and the Kissing Bridge in the Caribbean. The symbolism of the bridge between c ultures is made literal by the integration of the images of two bridges from differing culture in order to create a symbolic union. The Kissing Bridge in the Caribbean is a common sight where weddings are held, thus it extends the interpretive platform that I labeled â€Å"Culture Marriage†, in order to express the interlaced iconic imagery that were used to connect both cultures. My work is highly textural, the use of fabrics and weaving techniques creating a visual complexity that comes together to support the language that I have created through the discourse within my work. Because I have chosen to work with textiles, I was invited to integrate my work into an event of a free-range exhibition of the work of fashion students at our university. I used this event as a preliminary experiment towards the eventuality of my own exhibition. I found that people were attracted to my work because of the textural elements that were involved in creating the work. Because of the tactil e element, some people wanted to reach out to the work and touch it to experience it from more than just the sense of sight. This type of â€Å"sensory art experience† allows for the viewer to experience the art on many levels, although it is more preferable if viewers do not disturb the pieces (Hinz 63). The type of communication that I intend with the work is partially through the textural elements, conveying the multiple layers of culture and the way in which culture has a variety of dimensions. This surprising